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Metal Buildings

Metal Buildings for Industrial, Commercial and Agricultural

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Metal Buildings Solution

Metal Buildings design from Havit Steel provides an optimized solution for your project. Our professional team is ready to serve any buildings. We can provide you with the most efficient design and construction plan, which is fast and smooth to complete construction for your steel building projects.

Metal Buildings
Steel Structure Buildings
Steel Structure Building

Steel Structure Building

Steel structure building is a new building structure—the entire building is made of steel. The structure mainly comprises steel beams,…

Steel Workshop Building
Steel Workshop Building

Steel Workshop Building

Steel workshop building used for industrial production. The industrial workshop includes production workshops, auxiliary production workshops, warehouses, power stations, and…

Steel Warehouse Building
Steel Warehouse Building

Steel Warehouse Building

The steel structure warehouse building designed by Havit Steel provides customers with ideal storage and cargo management solutions. With the…

Prefab Metal Building
Prefab Metal Building

Prefab Metal Building

Prefab metal building is customized steel structures according to customers' architectural and structural requirements. All components are produced in the…

Steel Aircraft Hangar Building
Steel Aircraft Hangar Building

Steel Aircraft Hangar Building

Havit Steel manufactures customized Steel Aircraft Hangar Building, which protects and maintains small and large aircraft. Our metal structure building…

Steel Structure Frame Building
Steel Structure Frame Building

Steel Structure Frame Building

The Steel Structure Frame Building is composed of steel beams and steel columns. The steel frame can withstand the vertical…

Metal Structure Garage Kits
Metal Structure Garage Kits

Metal Structure Garage Kits

The garage is an essential part of your property. Now almost every family has a car. The durable Metal Structure…

Steel Structure Livestock Buildings
Steel Structure Livestock Buildings

Steel Structure Livestock Buildings

Many farmers choose steel structures to build livestock buildings. Because steel structure livestock buildings with the advantage of low maintenance…

Metal Structure Warehouse Buildings
Metal Structure Warehouse Buildings

Metal Structure Warehouse Buildings

Metal Structure Warehouse Buildings can better meet the needs of cargo storage and logistics turnover because steel structure buildings have…

Steel Structure Workshop
Steel Structure Workshop

Steel Structure Workshop

The steel structure workshop is a new type of building structure system. The kind of building structure system is a…

Steel Structure Warehouse
Steel Structure Warehouse

Steel Structure Warehouse

The main load-bearing component of a steel structure warehouse is a steel frame, including steel columns and roof beams. After…

Steel Manufacturing Building
Steel Manufacturing Building

Steel Manufacturing Building

The steel building design from Havit Steel is an effective solution for steel manufacturing buildings. Every manufacturing business requires a…

Metal Buildings Specification

The metal buildings uses steel to form a load-bearing structure. Generally, beams, columns, trusses, and other components made of section steel and steel plates constitute a load-bearing structure, which together with roof, wall, and floor, form a building.

Compared with traditional concrete buildings, metal structure buildings use steel plates or section steel instead of reinforced concrete, higher strength, and better seismic resistance. And because the components can be manufactured in factories and installed on-site, the construction period is greatly reduced. Due to the reusability of steel, it can greatly reduce construction waste and become more environmentally friendly. Therefore, it is widely used in industrial buildings and civil buildings all over the world.

1. Greatly save construction time. Construction is not affected by the season
2. Increase the use area of buildings, reduce construction waste and environmental pollution
3. Building materials can be reused, stimulating the development of other new building materials industries
4. Good seismic performance, easy to transform, flexible and convenient in use, bringing comfort and so on
5. High strength, lightweight, high safety and wealth of components, and lower building cost

1. Heat-resistant and non-fire-resistant, fire-resistant coatings are required
2. It is susceptible to corrosion, and the surface needs to be coated with anti-corrosion coatings to reduce or avoid corrosion and increase durability

Metal Buildings

Metal Building Kits

Steel Building Kits design from Havit Steel with advantage of Fast and Simple Construction, Wide Range Of Uses, Reasonable Cost, lower price than concrete building structure.

Metal Buildings Cladding

Metal Cladding System

Metal cladding system includes wall and roof cladding, skylight sheet, trim and flashing, gutter and downspout, insulation, which are essential components of metal building.

Metal Buildings

Steel Building Specs

Steel Building Specification provide the basic information about the Prefab Steel Building, which include Steel Warehouse, Industrial Workshop, Shed, and Garage Building.

We Are Here To Serve Any Type Of Metal Buildings

Please contact us. There’s a lot we can do for your steel building projects, small or large. Our team will provide you with the best quality construction solution


Portal Steel Frame Buildings use the portal frame as the force carrier, and the enclosure structure is a system of thin-walled C/Z-shaped steel purlins and colored profiled steel plates. It is a new type of building structure system widely used. It has the advantages of being lightweight, having a high degree of industrialization, having a short construction period, having high comprehensive economic benefits, and having a flexible column network layout.

The Portal Steel Frame is a lightweight construction system with a sturdy web or lattice portal frame as the primary support structure. The frame is made from welded H-shaped steel with equal or variable cross-sections, hot-rolled H-shaped steel, or cold-formed thin-walled steel. To complete the building, cold-formed thin-walled steel in C or Z is used for the purlins and wall girts, while corrugated metal sheets are the roof and walls. For insulation, various materials, such as polystyrene foam, rigid polyurethane foam, rock wool, mineral wool, and glass wool, can be utilized to keep the interior temperature regulated. Additionally, a proper bracing system is installed to reinforce the structure further.

Compared to a reinforced concrete structure, a portal steel frame boasts several advantages, such as being lightweight, having high rigidity, allowing for a flexible design, exhibiting reasonable force, and offering convenient construction.

Form of Rigid Frame

The portal frame structure comes in several shapes, including single-span, double-span, high-low-span, and multi-span, with options such as a single ridge, multiple ridges, single slope, double slope, multiple slopes, and a flat slope. Single-span rigid frames are commonly used in buildings that don’t need much lateral space and have spans ranging from 18 to 36 meters. The beams and columns of these frames are usually made of welded or rolled H-shaped sections and are positioned and adjusted in height based on the span and the bending distance diagram. The multi-span rigid frame is ideal for large buildings, with a similar cross-section to the single-span rigid frame but with a center column that typically has an equal cross-section. Currently, the maximum span of a portal frame has reached 72 meters.

Rigid Steel Frame

The composition of Portal Steel Frame Buildings

  1. Primary framing: transverse rigid frames (including middle and end rigid framing), floor beams, crane beams, support systems, etc.
    2. Secondary framing: roof purlin and wall girt, etc.
    3. Envelope structure: roof and wall panels;
    4. Auxiliary structures: stairs, platforms, handrails, etc .;
    5. Foundation.
Portal Steel Frame Buildings

The primary force skeleton of portal frame steel buildings comprises steel columns, roof beams, and bracing systems. This is considered to be the primary framing. The roof and wall panels act as the envelope and closure for the structure, enhancing its overall stiffness. The roof purlins and wall girts also support the roof and walls and lateral support for the main structural beams and columns, forming the secondary framing.

The primary force skeleton of portal frame steel buildings consists of steel columns, roof beams, and bracing systems. This is the primary framing. The roof and wall panels act as the structure’s envelope and closure, increasing overall stiffness. The roof purlins and wall girts not only support the roof and walls but also provide lateral support for the main structural beams and columns, forming the secondary framing. The portal frame typically spans 9 to 36 meters, so if the side column widths differ, their outer sides should be aligned.

Portal Steel Frame Buildings

The portal frame’s recommended height ranges from 4.5 to 9.0mm, with a maximum height of 12m if an overhead crane is present.

To ensure proper structural integrity, the spacing between the axis of the column grid in portal frame steel buildings should fall between 6 and 9 meters. The overhang length should also be determined based on the specific application requirements, typically ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 meters.

The structural system of the portal steel frame buildings:

1. Transverse load-bearing structure:

  • The transverse load-bearing structure comprises steel roof beams, columns, and foundations.
  • This structure serves to support and transfer both vertical and horizontal loads.
Portal Steel Frame Buildings

2. Longitudinal Frame Structure :

The longitudinal frame structure comprises longitudinal columns, crane beams, wall bracing, rigid tie beams, and a foundation. Its purpose is to maintain the building’s stability and rigidity along its length and to support and withstand various forces, such as longitudinal wind loads, horizontal crane loads, thermal stresses, and seismic effects on the gable and roof.

longitudinal frame structure

3. Roof structure

1). The roof panel is designed to withstand both horizontal and vertical wind loads on the roof. It is commonly made using a single-color metal sheet or sandwich panel.

Roof Panel

2). A purlin serves as a support structure for the roof panel and can bear both vertical and horizontal wind loads transmitted from the roof panel.

3). The rigid frame beam is a critical load-bearing component responsible for carrying the weight of the roof structure and any live load transmitted from the roof panel.

4. Wall structure

1). The exterior wall panels, which include the vertical and gable walls, are primarily responsible for withstanding wind loads. These panels are commonly made from single-color metal sheets or sandwich panels.
2). A wall girt is designed to bear both vertical and horizontal wind loads that are transmitted by the wall panel.

wall structure

5. Bracing

Type: Roof horizontal bracing, wall bracing.

1). The horizontal bracing comprises roof cross bracing, tie beam, and fly bracing. Its primary function is to increase the overall rigidity of the roof.
2). Wall bracing is implemented to enhance the stability of the wall frame structure.

Roof and Wall Bracing

1). Improving the structural rigidity of the building’s interior space.
2). Guaranteed structural stability.
3). Transmit wind load, crane brake, and seismic load to the load-bearing members.

rod bracing

External loads exert their impact on the envelope of the structure. The secondary structure carries the vertical and lateral forces to the lateral portal frame of the primary system. The portal frame’s resistance to external influences is dependent on its stiffness. The roof and wall bracing transmit longitudinal wind loads to the foundation.

Portal Steel Frame Buildings

The structural layout of Portal Steel Frame Buildings

The building’s requirements dictate the span and column spacing when designing the portal steel frame. Consequently, the critical factors to consider during architectural design are the bracing system layout and determining the temperature range.

To account for the impact of temperature, longitudinal temperature sections of portal steel frame buildings must not exceed 300m, and transverse temperature sections must not exceed 150m. When the size of the temperature section surpasses the limit, temperature expansion joints must be implemented. These joints can be achieved by setting double columns or modifying the secondary framing.

steel building expansion joint

The main principles of the Bracing arrangement are as follows:

  1. The distance between bracing is generally 30m-40m and should not exceed 60m
Roof Bracing

2. The horizontal roof bracing and the wall bracing arranged between the same column are used to ensure the formation of a geometrically unchanged system and improve the overall stiffness of the building structure;
3. If the roof bracing is arranged between the second columns, rigid tie bars should be put between the first columns.

roof steel structure

5. The 45 ° inclined bar can most effectively transfer horizontal loads. When the angle of the single-layer bracing member is too large due to the high column, the double-layer or three-layer wall bracing should be set;

Wall Bracing

6. Rigid tie bars shall be provided at the turning points, such as the column tops and roof ridges. Longitudinal rigid tie bars shall provide the structure longitudinally at the bracing truss nodes;

portal steel frame buildings

7. The rigid tie bar of the portal steel frame buildings can use the purlin at the corresponding position. The tie bar is provided when the stiffness or bearing capacity is insufficient.

The dimensions of the portal steel frame building should comply with the following requirements:

The span of a portal frame shall be the distance between the axes of the transverse frame columns.

The height of the portal frame should be taken as the height from the floor to the intersection of the column axis and the inclined beam axis. The height of the portal frame should be determined according to the indoor net height requirements. For a factory with a crane, the height should be determined according to the rail top elevation and the crane net height requirements.

The axis of the column can be determined by the vertical axis at the center of the lower end of the column. The positioning axis of side columns in industrial buildings should be on the outside of the column. The axis of the inclined beam can be determined by the axis parallel to the center of the minor end of the variable-section beam segment and the upper surface of the inclined beam.

Construction dimensions of portal steel frame building:

The height of the cornice should be the height from the floor to the lower edge of the purlins on the outside of the house; its maximum height should be the height from the floor to the upper edge of the purlins at the top of the roof; its width should be the distance between the outer skins of the wall beams on the side walls of the house; its length Should be the distance between the gable wall beam skins at both ends.

The span of the portal frame should be 12 to 48 meters in a single span, with a module of 3 meters. If the widths of the side posts are not equal, their outer sides should be aligned.

The height of the portal frame should be 4.5 to 9.0 meters and can be increased appropriately if necessary. When there is an overhead crane, the height should not exceed 12 meters.

The spacing between portal frames, that is, the longitudinal distance between the axis of the column network, should be 6 meters, but can also be 7.5 meters or 9 meters, with a maximum of 12 meters. For smaller spans, 4.5 meters can be used.

The overhang length can be determined according to the usage requirements and should be 0.5 to 1.2 meters. The slope of the upper flange should be the same as the slope of the inclined beam. The forms of portal frames are divided into single-span and double-slope, double-span and single-slope, multi-span and double-slope, and rigid frames with overhangs and adjacent houses. The connection between the middle column of the multi-span rigid frame and the inclined beam of the rigid frame can be hinged. Multi-span rigid frames should adopt double-slope or single-slope roofs. If necessary, multi-span rigid frames connected by multiple double-slope single spans can also be used.

Installation sequence of portal steel structure:

  1. Install the steel column
    First, fix the anchor bolts, and the steel column is set on the foundation by connecting with the anchor bolts.
install steel column

2. Install the tie beam between the steel columns.

install tie beam

3. Assemble the steel beam
Steel beams should be combined with high-strength bolts on the ground and assembled.

Portal Steel Frame Buildings

4. Install the purlin between the two roof trusses to form a stable frame system.

Portal Steel Frame Buildings

Installation sequence: start with the two rigid frames supported between columns near the gable. Install purlin, bracing, fly bracing, etc.

Fly bracing

Install them in sequence toward the other end of the house, starting from the two rigid frames.

Factors of Portal Steel Frame Buildings that are considered in the design:

1. Regulations on the load value

Dead load

The design software generates the portal steel frame building’s self-weight, which calculates loads of the roof, purlin, bracing, and other components based on the actual design. The roof and wall panels can be corrugated single-color sheets or sandwich panels with insulation materials such as polystyrene foam, polyurethane, rock wool, glass wool, etc. The specific materials used in the design should be combined to determine the load of the roof and walls.

Variable load

Variable loads encompass live roofs, ash, cranes, seismic action, wind, and other factors. According to the “Technical Specification for Portal Steel Frame Light Steel Structures” (CECS102: 2002), the live load on the roof should be 0.5 kN/M2. However, if the load area exceeds 60M2, a reduction factor 0.6 can be applied, resulting in a typical steel frame calculation of 0.3kn/m2.

2. Minimize the amount of steel

The primary steel frame and purlins constitute over 90% of the steel consumption in portal steel frame buildings. Moreover, the arrangement of column spacing significantly impacts steel consumption under the same load conditions. Statistical analyses suggest that the recommended column distance is between 6-8m, and the span should not exceed 36m. Purlins should be thin-walled C and Z-type steel, while H-shaped sections are typically used for steel frames.

Features of the Portal Steel Frame Buildings

Less steel consumption and lightweight

The portal steel frame buildings are composed of lightweight and multi-functional new roof and wall materials integrated with waterproofing and enclosure, significantly reducing the structure’s load weight. The load-bearing components are generally high-strength steel, which can reduce the structure’s weight. Usually, the importance of the portal steel frame is only 1/8-1/10 of the reinforced concrete construction and 1/2-1/3 of the weight of the ordinary steel structure, which fully reflects the advantages of new materials.

The construction speed is fast.

The degree of industrialization is high, the construction period is short, and the steel structure is easy to manufacture. Because the essential components, such as beams and columns of the portal steel frame, are shaped and manufactured in the factory, they are assembled on-site according to requirements, which speeds up the construction progress and shortens the construction period. The period of the concrete bent structure is shortened by at least 60%. For generally small-scale industrial plants, the portal steel frame only takes 50 days to 2 months, while the reinforced concrete bent structure takes 10 to 12 months.

The fire protection solution of the portal steel frame buildings

Although steel is a non-combustible material, it is easy to conduct heat, and its fire resistance limit is only 15-20 minutes. For steel structures without fire protection, when the temperature reaches 350°C, 500°C, and 600°C, its strength will be reduced by 1/3, 1/2, and 2/3, respectively. When the structure’s temperature reaches 600°C, it will ultimately lose its bearing capacity. The surface of the steel structure can be covered with fire-resistant paint to prolong the fire-resistant time.

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