The type of steel building structures includes the portal rigid steel frame, frame structure, truss structure, and grid structure. The advantages and disadvantages of different structural systems are various, and the forms of stress are also different.
Features and applications of the standard type of steel building structures:
1. Portal Frame Steel Building Structures
The rigid portal frame is a structure in which beams and columns rigidly connected. It has the characteristics of simple structure, lightweight, reasonable stress, simple construction. Therefore, it widely used in industrial, commercial, agricultural, and Institutional Buildings.
2. Steel Building Frame Structures
The steel frame structure composed of steel beams and columns that can withstand vertical and horizontal loads. Columns, beams, bracing, and other members rigidly or hingedly connected to form a flexible layout and can create a larger space. It widely used in multi-story, high-rise and super high-rise buildings, commercial office buildings, conference centers, and other buildings.
3. Steel Truss Structure
The advantage of steel truss is that it used to form more significant members with smaller cross-sections. It often used in roofs, bridges, TV towers, mast towers, marine oil platforms, and tower corridors of industrial and civil buildings.
4. Steel Grid Structure
The grid structure is a space structure composed of many rods according to a specific rule, with small space stress, lightweight, high rigidity, and excellent seismic resistance, it used as a gymnasium, exhibition hall, aircraft hangar.
The composition of the portal frame steel workshop system:
Steel structure workshops divided into light steel workshops and heavy steel workshops. The structural system of the workshop is mainly composed of steel columns, wind columns, parapet columns, roof steel beams, crane beams, inter-column bracing, horizontal roof bracing, wall girt, roof purlins, tie bar, and other components. The primary structure is the portal steel frame, which can be single-span, multi-span, or multi-story, with an economic span of about 24-30m.
Common nodes of portal frame
The particular nodes of the portal steel frame include column foot node, beam, and column to beam node, roof beam node, column and roof bracing, tie beam connection node, gutter bracket.
The composition of the steel frame structure
For the steel frame structure, with the increase of the number of layers and height, in addition to bearing a large vertical load, the lateral resistance (wind load, earthquake action, etc.) requirements become the primary bearing characteristics of the frame.
Its basic structural system generally divided into three types: the Column-bracing system, the simple frame system, frame-bracing system. Among them, the frame-bracing system often used in actual projects.
The system form uses pure steel frames in the horizontal direction and arranges an appropriate number of vertical inter-column bracing in the longitudinal direction to strengthen the longitudinal rigidity, to reduce the amount of steel used in the frame and form a larger space.
Common nodes of steel frame structure
Common nodes of steel frame structure include column foot node, beam to column node, beam to beam node, the node of column joint, bracing node, beam-on-column node, etc.
The composition of the steel truss structure
The truss is a structure formed by a plurality of rods hinged connected at each end of each rod and divided into a plane truss and a space truss. According to the sectional form of the parts, it includes tube truss, H-shaped steel truss, box-shaped truss, angle steel truss, etc. The truss is generally composed of upper chords, lower chords, vertical rods, web rob, and bracing between truss. The amount of steel used for the truss is less than that of the H beam, the structure has a lighter weight, and the rigidity is greater. It widely used in high-rise buildings, large-span structures, and bridges.
The composition of Steel grid structure
The grid is a spatial structure formed by connecting multiple rods with nodes in a specific grid form. There are many types of grids, which classified according to different standards. According to the different composition methods, they divided into cross-truss system grids, triangular cone system grids, quadrangular cone system grids, and hexagonal cone system grids. The flat grid is mainly composed of chords, diagonal webs, intermediate nodes, support nodes, and so on.