Steel structure splicing includes splicing in the workshop and on-site. The splicing methods include welding and bolting. We should implement…
The steel structure system has the full advantages of a lightweight, easy installation, short construction cycle, excellent seismic performance, fast investment recovery, and low environmental pollution. The steel building components are prefabricated and can be directly assembled on the construction site.
Introduction of steel building components
The Primary frame comprises roof beams and steel columns forming a skeleton. It determines the type and size of the steel structure building. The primary steel frame plays an important role, including all the loads on the roof and the wall, and it can also withstand external weather, Such as solid winds, rain and snow, and the effects of earthquakes.
Single-span: A single-span portal frame supported by a beam at each end and a steel frame with two support points in the transverse direction. The distance between support points is called the span,
The main advantage of the single-span is that there is no covering space for internal columns. The width of a single-span steel frame can extend up to 60 meters using tapered or straight columns.
Single-span portal frames apply in churches, office buildings, garages, hangars, and sports buildings.
Multi-span: It is similar to a single-span portal frame structure. It has more than two supporting points in the horizontal direction. Multi-span steel buildings use beams and columns as supporting functions. It increases the active area of the prefab steel structure building because it uses internal support columns to improve strength.
I-beam-style steel frames are the most commonly used. Steel columns and roof beams can be hot-rolled or welded I-beams. Steel columns and beams are divided into equilateral and tapered structures, which need to be designed according to the width of the entire building and the load it bears.
Steel building components: Primary Structure
Refers to the load-bearing component at the bottom of the building that is in contact with the foundation and the lower extension of the structure in direct contact with the foundation for transmitting loads. Its function is to transfer the load from the upper part of the building to the foundation. Therefore, the foundation must be strong, stable, and reliable. Some structural components below the ground of engineering structures are used to transfer the load of the upper structure to the foundation.
2. Embedded parts
Generally, when doing civil construction or foundation, to facilitate the installation of the structure on the foundation or the convenience of equipment later, some equipment bases, anchor bolts, auxiliary steel plate structures, etc., are placed first on the foundation. After the foundation is completed, subsequent equipment can easily be fixed on the embedded panels or parts. This is very common in engineering.
Vertical members in engineering structures that mainly bear pressure and sometimes bending moments are used to support beams, trusses, floors, etc.
The cross-sectional forms are classified into square columns, cylinders, tube columns, rectangular columns, I-shaped columns, H-shaped columns, T-shaped columns, L-shaped columns, cross-shaped columns, double-limbed columns, and lattice columns; columns are critical in the structure. Partially, the failure of the columns will damage and collapse the entire structure.
Independent columns are columns that bear the load of the superstructure of a building.
Columns that enhance the structural stability of building walls. Gable wind-resistant columns, as the name suggests, mainly play a role in wind resistance but also have the role of anti-vibration and strengthening stability.
Components that are supported by bearings and bear mainly lateral forces and shear forces and whose primary deformation is bending are called beams.
- Regarding function, there are structural beams, such as foundation beams, steel beams, etc. Together with vertical components such as columns and load-bearing walls, it forms a spatial structure system; structural beams, such as ring beams, lintels, tie beams, etc., play structural roles such as crack resistance, earthquake resistance, and stability.
- Beams can be divided into rectangular section beams, T-shaped section beams, cross-section beams, I-shaped section beams, and irregular section beams according to their cross-section forms.
- Beams can be divided into roof, floor, underground frame, and foundation beams according to their location in different parts.
5. Crane beam
The beam explicitly used to load cranes inside the factory is called a crane beam and is generally installed on the upper part of the factory.
There is a crane truck on the crane beam, and the crane travels back and forth on the crane beam through the track.
A planar or spatial structure composed of straight rods, generally with triangular units. Under load, the truss members mainly bear axial tension or pressure so that the strength of the material can be fully utilized. When the span is large, it can save material, reduce self-weight, and increase stiffness compared with solid web beams. Therefore, it is suitable for load-bearing structures with larger spans and tall structures.
Steel building components: Secondary Structure
The secondary structures assist the primary structure and play a stabilizing role.
Secondary structures include horizontal roof bracing, wall bracing, tie beam, roof purlins, wall girt, and secondary structures made of cold-formed steel, such as round steel, angle steel, round pipe, C-shaped or Z-shaped steel.
It is the strut that the steel column and the steel column are connected horizontally. It is welded with steel pipes. It is used to resist the longitudinal force at the top of the column.
The tie beam is used to transmit axial force (such as wind load or crane longitudinal braking force), combined with cross horizontal bracing and cross wall bracing to form a stable longitudinal bracing system and increase the lateral stability of the beam and column members.
2. Roof horizontal bracing and wall bracing:
The roof load transferred from the roof bracing to the wall bracing and moved to the foundation. They are used to stabilize the primary steel frame.
3. Purlin, wall girt:
It comprises cold-formed C-shaped or Z-shaped steel. It is perpendicular to steel columns and roof beams. It is used to fix roof panels and wall panels. It also stabilizes the primary steel frame.
Working primarily with secondary steel frame systems, it provides all the strength needed for the metal structure building to meet the code and its intended use. Under pressure, steel can bend instead of breaking.
4. Sag rod:
A sag rod is used to Improve purlin stability.
The sag rods are generally made of round steel, and the diameter should not exceed 10mm. The setting of the braces is related to the span of the purlins. When the purlins span is 4m~6m, it is advisable to set the braces at the mid-span between the purlins. When the span is more excellent than 6m, the braces should be placed at one-third of the span of the purlins.
5. Flange bracing
The flange bracing is the support rod at the corner of the wall, between beams and columns, beams and purlins, and between columns and purlins. Those on the wall are called wall flange bracing, and those on the roof are called roof flange bracing.
Accessories for steel building components
Fasteners: Fasteners play the role of fastening connections in steel structure systems. Fasteners are mainly screws and bolts, including drill screws, anchor bolts, ordinary bolts, etc.;
Insulation materials: As an essential component of steel structure components, thermal insulation materials maximize their function of keeping out wind and rain. Insulation wool, rock wool boards, and sandwich panels are all thermal insulation materials.
Waterproof material: Waterproof material is the most technical accessory among steel structure accessories. It appears in accessories such as waterproof roll felt, coating, and butyl tape. Waterproof materials are the decisive factor for steel structure buildings to stand for twenty years.
Ventilation system: The ventilation system of steel structure buildings includes ridge ventilation and unpowered turbine ventilators.
Drainage system: Drainage pipes and gutters are responsible for drainage.
Windows and doors: Including aluminum alloy windows, rolling shutters, sliding doors, home doors, ventilators, and others.