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The steel structure is a structure composed of steel materials and is one of the main building structures. The structure is mainly composed of steel beams, steel columns, steel trusses, and other components made of section steel and steel plates. Welds, bolts, or rivets usually connect the components or parts. Its lightweight and easy construction are widely used in large-scale factories, venues, super high-rise buildings, and other fields.
- The structural steel is lighter in weight
- High reliability of steel structure work
- The steel has good vibration (shock) and impact resistance
- The degree of industrialization of steel structure manufacturing is relatively high
- The metal structure can be assembled accurately and quickly
- Easy to make a sealed structure
- The steel structure is easy to corrode
- The steel structure has poor fire resistance
Classification of steel structure
Steel structures are used in various buildings and engineering structures, and there are many types. The different connection methods can be divided into welded structures, bolted structures, and riveted structures. Welding connection is currently the most important connection method for steel structures, and its advantages are simple structure, material saving, easy processing, and automatic operation. But welding will cause structural deformation and residual stress.
Bolt connection is also a commonly used connection method with the advantages of convenient and rapid assembly. It can be used in a structural installation connection or detachable structure. The disadvantage is that the cross-section of the component is weakened and easily loosened. Rivet connection is an older connection method. Its good plasticity and toughness are convenient for quality inspection, so it is often used in structures that bear dynamic loads. However, manufacturing costs, labor, materials, and nail holes weaken the component’s cross-section. Therefore, it has been gradually replaced by welding in the manufacturing industry.
The advantage of Steel Structure
- High strength, lightweight, excellent seismic performance, short construction period, a high degree of industrialization, and little environmental pollution.
- In the process of manufacturing, construction, and use, it has the advantages of energy-saving, environmental protection, and safety. They are in line with the principles of sustainable human development.
- Steel structure with the advantage of Large span, lightweight, large carrying capacity, easy to install, usually used in bridges, industrial workshops, warehouses, and other buildings.
Steel Structure VS Concrete Structure
The steel building installation does not use traditional concrete, which can reduce the consumption of cement, sand, and other resources, thereby significantly reducing the excavation of fossils.
It can reduce the weight by 40% and save about 30% of the foundation.
The construction from the site to the main body can significantly reduce the water consumption during the installation, reduce the noise at the construction site, disturb the residents, wastewater discharge, and dust pollution; reduce sand mining and construction waste Emissions.
The CO2 emission of steel buildings for construction is about 480kg / m, which is more than 35% lower than 7474kg / m for traditional concrete. Simultaneously, when the building was demolished, the recyclable emissions of steel construction materials were reduced by more than 90%, and conventional concrete waste was reduced by about 60%.
The price of steel is 10% to 20% higher than reinforced concrete, steel structures, lower labor costs, and foundation costs, and consider to be the income brought by shortening construction time and short-term loans. The different prices for steel and concrete structures are not too high.
As far as space utilization is concerned, buildings over 20 stories often show the advantages of steel structures. For example, global financial centers use steel structures. If reinforced concrete use, the potential space utilization will be deficient. Therefore, considering the effective use of space, steel structures are more important than concrete, and the overall economic benefits of steel structures may be higher than concrete.
Due to the many advantages, metal structures have been widely using in industrial workshops, high-rise buildings, residential buildings, large public buildings, high-speed railways, thermal power plants, railway bridges, and offshore oil platforms.
Application range of steel structure
Large span structure
A steel structure building that spans more than 30 meters horizontally. Large-span structures are mostly used in industrial workshops, hangars, stadiums, and large warehouses.
The high strength of steel and the lightweight of steel structure is of great significance to high-rise buildings. High strength means a small cross-section size of components, which can increase the effective use area. Lightweight can greatly reduce the load on components, foundations, and foundations and reduce foundation projects’ cost.
When industrial buildings have large spans, column distances, or large-tonnage cranes are installed, and the structure needs to withstand large dynamic loads, steel structures are often used partially or completely. To shorten the construction period and bring out the investment benefits as soon as possible, my country’s ordinary industrial buildings have also adopted many steel structures in recent years.
It is said that a structure with a small load or a small span is a light structure. Self-weight is the main load of this structure, and light steel structures made of cold-formed thin-walled steel or small steel are often used.
Towers and masts have large heights, small cross-sectional dimensions of components, wind loads, and earthquakes often play a major role, and their own weight has a greater impact on the structure, so steel structures are often used.
Removable or movable structure
Steel trestle bridges, mobile exhibition halls, mobile platforms, etc. It can take advantage of the lightweight, ease of transportation, and installation.
Containers and large diameter pipes
Such as liquid (gas) tanks, transmission (oil, gas, raw material) pipelines, hydraulic pressure pipelines, etc.
Projects that are in urgent need of early delivery. This kind of project can take full advantage of the short construction period of steel structure, lightweight, and easy transportation.