The service life of steel structure buildings is more than 50 years. The roof and wall panels of prefabricated steel…
The logistics warehouse design is essential to the logistics park’s planning and design. The success of the logistics warehouse architectural design directly affects the logistics park’s function and operational efficiency.
Logistics warehouse design
The function of the warehouse building structure
Mainly include the building’s structure selection, the building’s ceiling height; the building’s number and area, the choice of the ground; the size of the passage.
The form of the warehouse building
Through the construction of building space, the functional partitions will not interfere with each other, laying a foundation for better use of the functional space; through the design of indoor and outdoor environmental space of the building, improve the quality of the building itself, and use clever design techniques to highlight the style design of the building.
Essential functions of logistics warehouse
Logistics warehouses play a crucial role in the global supply chain. Their role is not limited to storing goods but also has multiple functions to promote international logistics, as shown below:
Promote the flow of import and export goods and adjust the time difference between supply and demand: Logistics warehousing helps coordinate the time difference between the supply and demand of international logistics. This helps improve the efficiency of the flow of goods, thereby providing time benefits.
Strengthen cargo inspection and inspection to ensure the quality of goods entering the international market: The warehousing link allows strict inspection of goods entering the global market to eliminate counterfeit and inferior products. This also includes inspecting whether goods comply with national standards and international trade contract requirements to ensure the quality of goods on the market.
Extend the production and processing business and play a node role: In addition to cargo storage, logistics warehouses can also perform processing services with production characteristics, such as sorting, selection, sorting, processing, simple assembly, packaging, marking, stocking, etc. This helps shorten the time for subsequent processing of goods entering the international market and improves efficiency.
Adjust carrying capacity and reduce cargo damage and difference: Logistics warehouses play a buffering and regulating role in international logistics, helping to reduce the pressure on goods between ship transportation and inland transportation while making up for the lack of carrying capacity of inland transportation tools and ensuring international Smooth import and export logistics.
Different types of logistics warehouses
Logistics warehouses can be divided into different types according to their functions and the nature of the goods stored, as follows:
Divided by use function:
Port warehouse: Also called a turnover warehouse, it is usually prominent in scale, has a short storage period for goods, and has a fast turnover rate.
Transit warehouse: Located in cargo distribution centers and transportation hubs, it is used for the transfer and transshipment of goods and is usually connected to railway, highway, and waterway transportation hubs.
Processing warehouse: This type of warehouse not only stores goods but also performs processing operations such as picking, grading, and packaging.
Storage warehouse: Mainly used for long-term storage of export commodities to be sold, foreign aid reserve materials, imported items to be distributed, and reserve commodities required for export business.
Classification by storage product performance and equipment:
General-purpose warehouse: used to store general industrial commodities or agricultural and sideline products. It has low equipment requirements and is a public storage place, accounting for the most significant proportion.
Special-purpose warehouse: Used to store goods easily affected by the external environment or have unique properties unsuitable for mixed storage. Special equipment and maintenance are required.
Special warehouse: Dedicated to storing goods with unique properties, such as dangerous chemicals, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, etc., which require special storage equipment and strict safety measures.
These different types of warehouses together form a diverse and efficient logistics system, providing essential support for the smooth operation of international logistics.
Warehouse building technology
It includes the energy-saving design of buildings, materials, etc.
1. Logistics warehouse structure type
A building structure is a skeleton composed of essential components such as beams, slabs, walls, columns, foundations, etc., which can bear and transmit loads and other insights according to specific composition rules and correct connection methods. There are many classification methods for building structures, which can generally be classified according to the structure’s materials, load-bearing structure, use function, appearance characteristics, and construction method. Here we mainly introduce the classification by material.
Buildings can be divided into four categories according to the materials used: concrete structure, steel structure warehouse, masonry structure, and wood structure. With the rapid development of the logistics industry, the current logistics mainly use steel and concrete structures.
1) Steel structure warehouse building
The steel structure is formed by effectively linking steel plates, section steel, etc., and is widely used in industrial and high-rise buildings. With the rapid development of economic construction and the substantial increase in steel output in China, the application of steel structures has been greatly expanded. Compared with other structural forms, steel has the main advantages of high strength, lightweight, uniform material, good reliability, simple construction, short construction period, and good seismic performance.
The steel structure has certain advantages regarding structural performance, use function, and economic benefits. The portal frame steel structure warehouse is the most popular in the steel structure.
At present, conventional logistics warehouses are mainly steel structures. The structure is not subject to temperature changes and has a short construction period. And most of the components are completed in the factory, the quality is guaranteed, and a large-span structural system can be realized. The maximum span of a single steel structure warehouse can reach 60m.
With the continuous improvement of my country’s steel structure engineering technology level and construction technology, steel structures have been widely used in factories, warehouses, and other projects. This structural form has been well applied in the completed storage engineering projects. In addition, to prevent the indoor temperature from rising due to sun exposure, heat-insulating glass wool should be added to the roof, and galvanized steel sheets should be used for the roof and wall panel to improve service life.
Due to the frequent entry and exit of materials and mechanical operations in the logistics warehouse, collisions are easy to occur, so anti-collision facilities must be installed on the wall panel. The anti-collision facilities are generally set up with a 1.2-meter-high brick-concrete wall, and above the brick-concrete wall is a corrugated metal sheet. If the brick-concrete wall is damaged, it can be repaired quickly, and the maintenance is convenient.
2) Concrete structure
Concrete structures include reinforced and prestressed concrete structures, among which reinforced concrete structures are the most widely used. Its main advantages are high strength, good integrity, durability and fire resistance, easy-to-obtain materials on site, and good moldability. The main disadvantages are self-heavy weight, poor crack resistance, multiple construction links, and a long construction period.
2. Logistics warehouse design for height
The warehouse height refers to the distance from the ground to the roof. In theory, the higher the warehouse’s height, the better, but the higher the warehouse will increase the construction cost and reduce the number of floors of the building. The warehouse’s height is mainly affected by the average height of the stack of goods, the type of storage equipment, and the type of stacking equipment.
When determining the floor height, if it is not necessary to set up high shelves indoors, the maximum stacking height of ordinary containers and the functional characteristics of forklift machinery should be considered. The most economical and practical floor height is 6.5m at the lowest point of clear indoor height. This way, the needs of stacking items can be met without causing a waste of space.
1) Average height of cargo stacking
The stack’s average height refers to the average height of the goods stacked on the actual floor space of the stack. The average height of the warehouse is directly proportional to the utilization rate of the warehouse height. The higher the warehouse’s average height, the higher the warehouse height utilization rate, and the higher the warehouse height.
2) Types of storage devices
When the warehouse has an automatic three-dimensional warehouse, the height is often high; when the warehouse mainly uses pallet stacking, the warehouse’s height is often relatively low. An effective height design must meet the basic height requirements of the storage device used. Simultaneously, storage equipment should be kept at a certain distance from the warehouse roof and beams to ensure fire protection and ventilation.
3) Types of stacking equipment
Different operating equipment also has different requirements for the height of the warehouse. Generally speaking, the distance from the ground to the beam required by forklifts is relatively low, while the distance required by large cranes (such as gantry cranes, bridge cranes, etc.) is relatively high.
Generally speaking, the net height of a single-story elevated warehouse should not be less than 7 meters. The net height should be 8-10 meters if a portal steel frame structure is used.
3. Logistics warehouse design for floors and area
Warehouses can be classified into single-story and multi-story warehouses according to the number of floors. The number of floors is related to the warehouse’s structure and related to the height of the warehouse. It is generally believed that the higher the warehouse is, there are fewer floors; the lower the warehouse can appropriately increase the number of floors.
Determining the warehouse area involves the length and width of the warehouse. The warehouse’s length and width are affected by factors such as the type of goods stored, the handling method, and the selection of building structure. Generally, a rectangle is used, and the length is about three times the width.